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The story of the royal family
For more than a thousand years Britain has always had kings or queens except for the ten years between 1649 and 1659. In the past, kings had great power and they really helped to make history. They started wars, made lows, and did things in their own way. But gradually more and more power went to Parliament. What does the queen do now? Why does Britain need monarchy? And does it? A job for life Elizabeth II calls the Windsor family a «Firm»....

The Roman Empire
Two thousand years ago while the Celts were still living in tribes the Romans were the most powerful people in the world. Roman society differed greatly from that of the Celts. It was a slave society divided into antagonistic classes. The main classes were the slaves and the slave-owners. The slave-owners made up the minority of the population but they owned the land, tools, buildings and slaves. The slaves possessed neither land nor tools and were themselves the...

The Roman Conquest of Britain
One of the last countries to be conquered by Rome was France, or Gaul as it was then called. The war against the Gauls, who were Celtic tribes, lasted for eight years. Julius Caesar was appointed Head of the Roman army which was sent to conquer Gaul. In the course of his campaigns Caesar reached the Channel and that was how the Romans came to see the white cliffs of the land of the British Celts. In 55 B.C. a Roman army...

The role of art in our life
Art is an all embracing notion (music, painting, theatre, literature and so on). Art had the most important role in the development of the mankind. The first were found on walls of ancient caves. So we can guess that painting was the first way of art. Painting is the most understandable way of art, because it gives us the most full and vivid impression.   Seneka once said: «All art is bur imitation of nature»

The people trade
The PeopleTtrade   Special report.  Europe needs workers: immigrants want a better life. Inside the shadowy — and dangerous — world of human smuggling.  Inside the customs office in Dover, England, a fax machine chirruped.  Out came a message from the European Pathway, a P&O Stena Line ferry that was churning across the channel from Zeebrugge, Belgium. The crew was dutifully alerting British authorities to a suspicious truck, a big white Mercedes-Benz...

The Impact of the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA
The Impact of the Civil War 1861−1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA   Reconstruction (1865−77), in U.S. history, period during and after the American Civil War in which attempts were made to solve the political, social, and economic problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 Confederate states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war.  As early as 1862, Pres. Abraham Lincoln ...

The history of the Tower of London
Contents: 1. The Development of the Tower 2. The Normans 3. The Medieval Tower 4. The Tower in Tudor Times 5. The Restoration and After 6. The Tower in the 19th Century 7. The 20th Century   The Tower of London The History of the Tower of London Fortress, Palace and Prison   This short history of the Tower of London charts the different stages of its development. Throughout its history, the Tower has attracted a number of important ...

The fastest computers of the world
One of sensations presently is the supercomputer. They can look as a small case, or a curbstone near a table.  Business and its requirements for calculations grow, together with it the supercomputer develops also.  It differs from the usual computer in additional processors and hard disks. For increasing of working frequency special processors are used.  They are executed on the logic circuits. The style programming is determined by use

The Fall of the Roman Empire
The Romans remained in Britain for about four centuries & during that time Britain was a Roman province governed by Roman governors & protected by Roman legions.   In the 3rd-4th centuries the power of the roman Empire gradually weakened. The unproductive labour of the slaves led to the economic decline of the empire. Neither new methods of land cultivation nor new technical inventions were introduced. Slavery became obstacle to technical progress....

The Etymology of English Words
Contents   Survey of certain historical facts Structural elements of borrowings Why Are Words Borrowed? Do Borrowed Words Change or do They Remain the Same? International Words Etymological Doublets Translation-Loans Are Etymological and Stylistic Characteristics of Words Interrelated?   Survey of certain historical facts It is true that English vocabulary, which is one of the most extensive among the world’s languages contains an immense number...

The Cinema in Russia Today
Cinema is one of the most important means of entertainment and propaganda. It is an ideological instrument of the political party at power in a country. Cinema is a mirror reflection of the county rulers and their policy.  If you want to go to the cinema in Russia today you will have to face two problems. The first is to find a cinema in your locality which is still showing films and which...

Speak English
Generation of 90-th is really lucky because it has new oportunities and great future. «Ferreous curtain» fell down, so now young people can travel all over the world, can consort to the people of the same age from different countries, can study culture of capitalistic nations. Certainly, it is impossible to do it if you don’t speak foreign language. I suppose, that the most usefull language in modern world is English....

Sociolinguistics
English is the second most widely spoken language in the world. It is the official language of The United Kingdom, Ireland, The United States, Canada, Jamaica, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand and it is widely spoken in India. It is the language of international business and science, of aviation and shipping. As so many people speak English in so many countries, there are many different «Englishes»....

Roman Influence in Britain
As a result of the conquest signs of Roman civilization spread over Britain. There had been no towns in Britain before the Romans conquered it. The civilized Romans were city dwellers, and as soon as they had conquered Britain they began to built towns, splendid villas, public baths as in Rome itself. York, Gloucester, Lincoln and London became the chief Roman towns; there were also about fifty other smaller towns. London which had been...

Rembrandt
Rembrandt   Rembrandt (1606−1669) was a Dutch baroque artist who ranks as one of the greatest painters in the history of Western art. His full name was Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, and he possessed a profound understanding of human nature that was matched by a brilliant technique- not only in painting but in drawing and etching- and his work made an enormous impact on his contemporaries and influenced the style of many...

My summer holidays
After my hard and busy school year my summer holidays began. I felt happy and began to plan a lot of wonderful things to do during my summer vocation. I was dreaming about far South countries I always wanted to visit. For example I dreamed to visit, Greece islands or Singapore beaches. But I had to go to the Azove seaside with my relatives. The water was very warm there because you know Azove Sea isn’t...

Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation
The design and management of reward systems present the general manager with one of the most difficult HRM tasks. This HRM policy area contains the greatest contradictions between the promise of theory and the reality of implementation. Consequently, organisations sometimes go through cycles of innovation and hope as reward systems are developed, followed by disillusionment as these reward systems fail to deliver.    Rewards and employee satisfaction...

Media in the World
Mass media is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motion pictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. It refers to much more than the journalistic aspects of the instruments of popular communication. The mass media often function as the locus of social control and the source of popular culture. They help create historical events, teach values, and by virtue of the huge commercial enterprises they represent, affect...

Mary Stuart
Contents Introduction  The beginning of Elizabeth’s career  Mary’s appearance and the story of the conflict  Political situation in Scotland  Struggle alone  Elizabeth obtained her own way  Tragic struggle  Conclusion  Introduction My favorite subject at school is history, so the history of England is very interesting for me too. Elizabeth the First and Mary Stuart are very important persons in the history of England. The struggle of Queen...

Managing marketing
Managing marketing (Promoting Goods & Services)   PLAN Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tools Promotional Objectives Promotional Strategies Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional MixAdvertising Promotions Advertising Strategies Advertising Media Types Advertising Advertising to Specific Markets Regulation of AdvertisingPersonal Selling Promotions Types of Personal Selling Situations Personal Selling Tasks The Personal Selling ProcessSales Promotions Types of Sales Promotions...

Lexico-semantic characteristics of business letter correspondence
Content ANNOTATION INTRODUCTION BUSINESS LETTERS THROUGHT LEXICS A sampling of contract phrases Foreign esoteric words Some words against passive EXAMINING ENGLISH BUSINESS LETTERS Example 1. Example2. Example 3. Example 4. Example 5. Example 6. CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY   ANNOTATION The subject matter of the course paper is the role of lexics and semantics in the case of business letter correspondence. The question of the history of official communication, the main stages...

Lexical Stylistic Devices
Content   Introduction Lexical stylistic devices Metaphor Metonymy Pun, zeugma, semantically false chains, nonsense of non-sequence Irony Antonomasia Epithet Hyperbole and understatement Oxymoron   Introduction Lexical stylistic device is such type of denoting phenomena that serves to create additional expressive, evaluative, subjective connotations. In fact we deal with the intended substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries,...

Korea in Focus
A People and History in Harmony   Introduction In the past two decades, Korea has been one of the fastest developing nations in the world — both in economic and social terms. Rapid industrial and economic growth has seen the Republic nearly reach developed nation status in a remarkably short time. The Korean people also find themselves in the midst of a new era of democratic development following the birth of the civilian Administration...

International raw materials market
International raw materials market   Contents  Introduction  Trade intermediates and natural resources  I. I Middle products (intermediates) I. II Natural resources Raw Materials Summary Addendum 1 Bibliography   Introduction 1. Raw Materials — A natural of semifinished god that is used in manufacturing or processing to make some other good. Bauxite is the raw materials (ore) from which aluminum is made; aluminum is turn can be the raw material...

Idioms
Idioms involve collocation of a special kind. Consider, for instance, kick the bucket, fly off the handle, spill the beans, red herring. For here we not only have the collocation of kick and the bucket, but also the fact that the meaning of the resultant combination is opaque — it is not related to the meaning of the individual words, but is sometimes (though not always) nearer to the meaning of a single word (thus kick ...

How to spend summer holidays?
Which is the best way to spend your summer holidays? Well, I guess there exists a great number of different ways of spending summer holidays… But each person has his own preferences, so everyone likes the only way.  I think that there are two ways of spending your holidays — active and passive. The passive way means staying in the sun, for example, and enjoying doing nothing, and the active — quite opposite: going boating...

Holidays
Which is the best way to spend your summer holidays?  Well, I guess there exists a great number of different ways of spending summer holidays… But each person has his own preferences, so everyone likes the only way.  I think that there are two ways of spending your holidays — active and passive. The passive way means staying in the sun, for example, and enjoying doing nothing J, and the active — quite opposite: going boating...

Hobby (Travelling)
Hobby (Travelling) People on our planet can’t live without travel now. Tourism has become a highly developed business. There are express trains, cars and jet-air liners all of that provide you with comfort and security. What choose to make? It’s up to you to decide. There is a great varieties of choose available for you. If you travel for pleasure you would like by all means to enjoy picturesque places you are passing through,...

History of London
Numerous finds prove that the area around London was inhabited by the Celts from 800 BC onwards. The earliest prehistoric settlers in the London area lived along parts of the Thames valley. Some of their flint tools have been found in river graver. All the time it was mostly wild forested countryside. In later prehistoric times the settlers became more organized. They lived in villages of huts made of timber, branches & clay. They hunted, fished...

George Washington
George Washington (1ST President)   Plan NamePhysical DescriptionPersonalityAncestorsFatherMotherSiblingsCollateral relativesChildrenBirthChildhoodEducationReligionRecreationEarly romanceBetsy FauntleroyMary PhilipseSally FairfaxMarriageMilitary ServiceCareer before the presidencyFrench and Indian War, 1754 — 1763Member of House of Burgesses (1759 — 1774)Delegate to Continental Congress (1774 — 1775)Commander of Chief of Continental Army during...


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